4 neue Meilensteine der medizinischen Forschung

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Daß innerhalb so kurzer Zeit 4 Meilensteine entdeckt werden, dürfte nicht allzu häufig vorkommen, nehme ich an.

Meilenstein 1: die Steuerungsregion des Bewußtseins räumlich lokalisiert

    Consciousness on-off switch discovered deep in brain
    02 July 2014 by Helen Thomson
    Magazine issue 2976

    ONE moment you’re conscious, the next you’re not. For the first time,
    researchers have switched off consciousness by electrically stimulating a
    single brain area.

    Scientists have been probing individual regions of the brain for over a
    century, exploring their function by zapping them with electricity and
    temporarily putting them out of action. Despite this, they have never been
    able to turn off consciousness – until now.



Meilenstein 2: Hirnverletzungen erhöhen die Wahrscheinlichkeit für Demenz

Die bisherigen Forschungen haben gezeigt, daß Kopfstöße beim Fußball Schäden hervorrufen. Wie ist es dann erst zu verantworten, daß GEZIELT in Schulen Boxen “unterrichtet” wird?

    Traumatic brain injury and risk of dementia in older veterans

    Deborah E. Barnes, PhD, MPH,
    Allison Kaup, PhD,
    Katharine A. Kirby, MA,
    Amy L. Byers, PhD, MPH,
    Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, MD, PhD and
    Kristine Yaffe, MD

    Published online before print June 25, 2014,
    10.1212/WNL.0000000000000616 Neurology 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000616


    Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in military personnel,
    and there is growing concern about the long-term effects of TBI on the
    brain; however, few studies have examined the association between TBI and
    risk of dementia in veterans.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 188,764 US veterans
    aged 55 years or older who had at least one inpatient or outpatient visit
    during both the baseline (2000–2003) and follow-up (2003–2012) periods and
    did not have a dementia diagnosis at baseline. TBI and dementia diagnoses
    were determined using ICD-9 codes in electronic medical records. Fine-Gray
    proportional hazards models were used to determine whether TBI was
    associated with greater risk of incident dementia, accounting for the
    competing risk of death and adjusting for demographics, medical
    comorbidities, and psychiatric disorders.



Meilenstein 3: Neugeborene bei Sauerstoffmangel, zum Beispiel durch Geburtskomplikationen, zu unterkühlen, erhöht die Überlebenswahrscheinlichkeit und verbessert langfristig die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer normalen Hirnleistung

    Cooling protects oxygen-deprived infants

    Use of hypothermia in babies at risk of brain damage lessens risk of long-term disability.

    Erika Check Hayden

    09 July 2014

    Nearly 750,000 babies born each year in the United Kingdom are at risk of
    brain damage because of low oxygen during birth.

    Cooling babies who are at risk of brain damage provides long-lasting
    prevention of such injuries, researchers report today in the New England
    Journal of Medicine1.

    A team led by Denis Azzopardi, a neonatologist at King’s College London,
    lowered the body temperature of 145 full-term babies who were born after
    at least 36 weeks of gestation. All were at risk of brain damage because
    they had been deprived of oxygen during birth.

    The researchers cooled the infants to between 33°C and 34°C for 72 hours,
    starting within 6 hours of birth. The technique is known to boost the
    chances that children avoid brain damage until they become toddlers2, but
    any longer-term benefits have remained unclear.

    The study finds treated babies had better mental and physical health than
    untreated infants through to ages 6 or 7: they were 60% more likely to
    have normal intelligence, hearing and vision. Those who survived to
    childhood also had fewer disabilities such as difficulty walking and

    “The bottom line is that this doubles a child’s chance of normal
    survival,” says David Edwards, a neonatologist at King’s College London
    and an author of the study.



Meilenstein 4: eine der Grundfunktionen des Gedächtnisbildung in den Hirnzellen entschlüsselt

    Light switches memories on and off

    Researchers use optogenetics to provide the first hard evidence that long-term potentiation at brain synapses is crucial for memory formation

    Optogenetics Optogenetics allows researchers to control the activity of nerve cells using pulses of laser light delivered into the brain with an optical fibre.

    A team of researchers from the University of California, San Diego, has determined the cellular mechanism of memory formation, putting an end to decades of speculation about the matter.

    Most neuroscientists agree that memory formation involves the strengthening of synapses in the brain, and have assumed that this strengthening occurs by a form of synaptic plasticity called long-term potentiation (LTP), even though there was no hard evidence that this is the case.

    The new research uses state-of-the-art neurotechnology to show not only that that the strengthening of synapses by LTP is required for the formation of fearful memories, but also that weakening of the same synapses by a similar, opposing mechanism can erase the memories.

    LTP was discovered in the 1960s by a Norwegian scientist named Terje Lømo, who was using pairs of electrodes to examine the activity of nerve cells in the rabbit hippocampus. Lømo used one electrode to stimulate cells in one region, and the other to simultaneously measure changes in the activity of connected cells in a neighbouring area.


Post Title: 4 neue Meilensteine der medizinischen Forschung
Author: Acorlin
Posted: 13th July 2014
Filed As: Meilensteine der Forschung
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